Test Bank Pharmacology Patient Centered Nursing Process Approach 8th Edition, Kee
Chapter 01: Drug Action: Pharmaceutic, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Phases
1. Which drugs will go through a pharmaceutic phase after it is administered?
a. Intramuscular cephalosporins
b. Intravenous vasopressors
c. Oral analgesics
d. Subcutaneous antiglycemics
2. The nurse is preparing to administer an oral medication and wants to ensure a rapid drug action. Which form of the medication will the nurse administer?
b. Enteric-coated pill
c. Liquid suspension
3. The nurse is teaching a patient who will be discharged home with a prescription for an enteric-coated tablet. Which statement by the patient indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “I may crush the tablet and put it in applesauce to improve absorption.”
b. “I should consume acidic foods to enhance absorption of this medication.”
c. “I should expect a delay in onset of the drug’s effects after taking the tablet.”
d. “I should take this medication with high-fat foods to improve its action.”
4. A patient who is newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus asks why insulin must be given by subcutaneous injection instead of by mouth. The nurse will explain that this is because
a. absorption is diminished by the first-pass effects in the liver.
b. absorption is faster when insulin is given subcutaneously.
c. digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract prevent absorption.
d. the oral form is less predictable with more adverse effects.
5. The nurse is preparing to administer an oral medication that is water-soluble. The nurse understands that this drug
a. must be taken on an empty stomach.
b. requires active transport for absorption.
c. should be taken with fatty foods.
d. will readily diffuse into the gastrointestinal tract.
6. A nurse is preparing to administer an oral drug that is best absorbed in an acidic environment. How will the nurse give the drug?
a. On an empty stomach
b. With a full glass of water
c. With food
d. With high-fat food
7. The nurse is preparing an injectable drug and wants to administer it for rapid absorption. How will the nurse give this medication?
a. IM into the deltoid muscle
b. IM into the gluteal muscle
c. SubQ into abdominal tissue
d. SubQ into the upper arm
8. The nurse is reviewing medication information with a nursing student prior to administering an oral drug and notes that the drug has extensive first-pass effects. Which statement by the student indicates a need for further teaching about this medication?
a. “The first-pass effect means the drug may be absorbed into systemic circulation from the intestinal lumen.”
b. “The first-pass effect means the drug may be changed to an inactive form and excreted.”
c. “The first-pass effect means the drug may be changed to a metabolite, which may be more active than the original.”
d. “The first-pass effect means the drug may be unchanged as it passes through the liver.”
9. The nurse prepares to change a patient’s medication from an intravenous to an oral form and notes that the oral form is ordered in a higher dose. The nurse understands that this is due to differences in
c. protein binding.
10. The nurse is preparing to administer a drug and learns that it binds to protein at a rate of 90%. The patient’s serum albumin level is low. The nurse will observe the patient for
a. decreased drug absorption.
b. decreased drug interactions.
c. decreased drug toxicity.
d. increased drug effects.
Chapter 02: The Drug Approval Process
1. The nurse is preparing to administer a schedule II injectable drug and is drawing up half of the contents of a single-use vial. Which nursing action is correct?
a. Ask another nurse to observe and cosign wasting the remaining drug from the vial.
b. Keep the remaining amount in the patient’s drawer to give at the next dose.
c. Record the amount unused in the patient’s medication record.
d. Dispose of the vial with the remaining drug into a locked collection box.
2. A patient is prescribed a medication and asks the nurse if the drug is available in a generic form. The nurse understands that a generic medication will have a name that
a. is a registered trademark.
b. is always capitalized.
c. describes the drug’s chemical structure.
d. is non-proprietary.
3. A patient receives a prescription on which the provider has noted that a generic medication may be given. The patient asks the nurse what this means. What will the nurse tell the patient about generic drugs?
a. They contain the same inert ingredients as brand-name drugs.
b. They have chemical structures that are identical to proprietary drugs.
c. They tend to be less expensive than brand-name drugs.
d. They undergo extensive testing before they are marketed.
4. The nurse reviews information about a drug and notes the initials “USP” after the drug’s official name. The nurse understands that this designation indicates the drug
a. is a controlled substance.
b. is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
c. is available in generic form.
d. meets quality and safety standards.
5. The nurse is preparing to give a medication to a child. The child’s parent asks whether the drug is safe for children. How will the nurse respond to the parent?
a. “Drugs are tested on adults and safe doses for children are based on weights compared to adult weights.”
b. “Drugs are deemed safe for children over time when repeated use proves effectiveness and safety.”
c. “Drugs are tested for both efficacy and safety in children in order to be marketed for pediatric use.”
d. “Drugs are tested on children in postmarketing studies and on a limited basis.”
6. Which law(s) govern all drug administration by nurses?
a. Drug Regulation and Reform Act
b. FDA Amendments Act
c. Nurse Practice Acts
d. The Controlled Substances Act
7. The nurse administers a drug and miscalculates the dose by placing the decimal place one space to the right, resulting in a 10-fold overdose and the death of the patient. What offense does this represent?
8. The nurse is busy and neglects to give a drug to a patient resulting in the patient’s death. What offense does this represent?
9. A patient is taking methadone as part of a heroin withdrawal program. The nurse understands that, in this instance, methadone is classified as which drug schedule?
10. The nurse is preparing to administer a combination drug containing acetaminophen and codeine. The nurse knows that this drug is classified as which drug schedule?
Chapter 03: Cultural and Pharmacogenetic Considerations
1. The nurse is performing a pain assessment on a patient of Asian descent. The patient does not describe the pain when asked to do so and looks away from the nurse. What will the nurse do next?
a. Ask the patient’s family member to evaluate the patient’s pain.
b. Conclude that the patient’s pain is minimal.
c. Evaluate the patient’s non-verbal pain cues.
d. Suspect that the patient is experiencing severe pain.
2. The nurse is preparing to discuss long-term care needs with a patient newly diagnosed with a chronic disease. The patient is of Latin American descent. The nurse will plan to take which action when teaching this patient?
a. Discussing long-term outcomes associated with compliance of the prescribed regimen
b. Highlighting various traditional healing practices that will not be effective for this patient’s care
c. Providing factual information and answering all questions as they arise
d. Providing teaching in increments, allowing periods of silence to allow assimilation of information
3. A Native American patient has just been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The nurse preparing a teaching plan for this patient understands that which aspect of the disease and disease management may be most difficult for this patient?
a. Body image changes
b. Management of meal and medication schedules
c. Perception of the disease as punishment from God
d. The sense of dependence on others
4. A patient who is of Filipino descent is admitted to the hospital. The nurse goes to the room to start intravenous fluids and to perform an admission assessment and finds several family members in the room. Which action by the nurse is appropriate?
a. Ask the family to wait in the hallway until the admission tasks are completed.
b. Determine which family member is the family patriarch and address questions to him.
c. Invite family members to assist with appropriate tasks during the admission process.
d. Provide chairs for family members and ask them to stay seated during the admission.
5. The nurse is caring for a patient who is a member of the local Native American community. The patient is refusing medications and treatments in spite of repeated attempts to explain the importance of these interventions. Which is an appropriate nursing action?
a. Ask a family member about traditional healing practices that might be better accepted.
b. Enlist the help of a family member to explain the need for the medications and treatments.
c. Find a hospital staff member who is Native American to help provide teaching for this patient.
d. Suggest a Social Work consult to the patient’s provider.
6. The nurse is caring for an African-American patient who appears to understand instructions for self-care but does not carry out basic self-care tasks. The nurse understands that the patient may
a. be poorly educated and lack basic comprehension skills.
b. need more time and personal space to assimilate what is taught.
c. require the use of culturally appropriate words and phrases when teaching.
d. view illness as punishment and lack desire to change the outcome.
7. The nurse notes that a patient of African American descent who is taking an oral antihypertensive medication continues to have elevated blood pressure three months after beginning the medication regimen. The nurse suspects that the patient may be
a. consuming ethnic foods that interfere with absorption of the drug.
b. discarding the medication.
c. experiencing allergic reactions to the medication.
d. metabolizing the drug differently than expected.
8. The nurse is caring for a postoperative patient who is of Asian descent. The patient reports little relief from pain even while taking an opioid analgesic containing codeine and acetaminophen. What does the nurse suspect that this patient is exhibiting?
a. Drug-seeking behavior
b. Heightened pain perception
c. Poor understanding of expected drug effects
d. Rapid metabolism of one of the drug’s components
9. The nurse is caring for an African-American patient who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) to prevent blood clots. The nurse will monitor this patient carefully for which effect?
a. Decreased therapeutic effects
b. Heightened risk for hemorrhage
c. Increased risk of hypersensitivity
d. Potential risk of paradoxical effects
Chapter 04: Drug Interactions and Over-the-Counter Drugs
1. A patient has been taking a drug for several years and tells the nurse it is no longer working. The nurse learns that the patient has recently begun taking an over-the-counter antacid medication. What does the nurse suspect is occurring?
a. An adverse drug reaction
b. A drug interaction
c. Drug incompatibility
d. Drug tolerance
2. The nurse is preparing to administer two intravenous medications that should not be given using the same IV tubing. The nurse understands that this is because of drug
a. adverse reactions.
3. The nurse is teaching a patient who will begin taking ciprofloxacin. What instruction will the nurse include when teaching this patient about this drug?
a. “Do not take this medication with oral contraceptive pills.”
b. “Take at least 1 hour after or 2 hours before taking antacids.”
c. “Take in the morning with your multivitamin tablet.”
d. “Take with milk to reduce gastric upset.”
4. A patient who takes a drug that undergoes gastric absorption will begin taking an opioid analgesic after sustaining an injury in a motor vehicle accident. The nurse will observe the patient closely for which effects?
a. Decreased effects of the first drug
b. Increased effects of the first drug
c. Decreased effects of the narcotic
d. Increased effects of the narcotic
5. The nurse is preparing to administer erythromycin to a patient who takes digoxin. The nurse will plan to monitor the patient for
a. digoxin toxicity.
b. decreased digoxin effects.
c. erythromycin toxicity.
d. decreased erythromycin effects.
6. A young adult female patient who takes a combination oral contraceptive (OCP) will begin taking an antibiotic. When teaching the patient about this medication, the nurse will
a. recommend using a backup method of contraception.
b. suggest that she switch to an injectable form of contraception.
c. tell her that the antibiotic is less effective if she is taking OCPs.
d. tell her the antibiotic has a greater risk for toxicity while taking OCPs.
7. A patient has been taking warfarin (Coumadin), which is highly protein-bound. The patient will begin taking gemfibrozil, which is also highly protein-bound. The nurse will observe the patient closely for
a. decreased effects of warfarin.
b. increased effects of warfarin.
c. decreased effects of gemfibrozil.
d. decreased effects of both drugs.
8. A patient is taking phenytoin to prevent seizures. The nurse knows that phenytoin is highly protein-bound and has sedative side effects. The nurse reviews the patient’s chart and notes a low serum albumin. The nurse will notify the provider and observe the patient for which effects?
a. Decreased sedative effects
b. Increased sedative effects
c. Increased seizures
d. No change in effects
9. A patient who takes the anticoagulant warfarin will begin taking the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine. The nurse reviews the drug information for these drugs and learns that carbamazepine is a hepatic enzyme inducer. The nurse anticipates that the provider will make which dosage adjustment?
a. Decrease the dose of carbamazepine
b. Increase the dose of carbamazepine
c. Decrease the dose of warfarin
d. Increase the dose of warfarin
10. The nurse is caring for a patient who receives theophylline, which has a narrow therapeutic index. The patient has been receiving cimetidine but will stop taking that drug in 2 days. In 2 days, the nurse will observe the patient closely for
a. decreased effectiveness of theophylline.
b. increased effectiveness of theophylline.
c. decreased toxicity of theophylline.
d. prolonged effectiveness of theophylline.
Chapter 05: Drugs of Abuse
1. The nurse is teaching a group in the community about drug abuse. Which statement by the nurse is correct?
a. “Cue-induced cravings eventually disappear after long periods of abstinence by the person addicted to drugs.”
b. “Drug abuse and drug addiction are synonymous terms, describing dependence on drugs.”
c. “Drug addiction is characterized by emotional, mental, and sometimes physical dependence.”
d. “Drug addiction occurs when physical dependence is present.”
2. The nurse is caring for a patient who is being treated for chronic alcohol intoxication. The nurse notes that the patient’s serum alcohol level is 0.40 mg%. The patient is awake and talkative even though this is a potentially lethal dose. The nurse recognizes this as alcohol
3. What does the nurse understand must occur in order to produce withdrawal syndrome?
c. Drug tolerance
d. Physical dependence
4. The nurse is counseling a patient who wants to stop smoking. Which statement by the nurse is correct?
a. “Bupropion (Zyban) is effective and does not have serious adverse effects.”
b. “Nicotine replacement therapies are effective and eliminate the need for behavioral therapy.”
c. “Varenicline (Chantix) may be used short-term for 1 to 2 months.”
d. “You may experience headaches and increased appetite for several months after stopping smoking.
5. A patient with asthma has been using a nicotine transdermal 24-hour patch for 3 weeks to quit smoking. The patient reports having difficulty sleeping. What action will the nurse take?
a. Ask the provider for a prescription for Nicotrol NS.
b. Recommend removing the patch at bedtime.
c. Suggest using an 18-hour patch instead.
d. Tell the patient to stop the patch and join a support group.
6. The nurse is discussing smoking cessation with a nurse colleague who smokes. Which statement indicates a readiness to quit smoking?
a. “I don’t smoke around my children or inside the house.”
b. “I want to stop smoking, but I will need help to do it.”
c. “I will quit so my co-workers will stop harassing me about it.”
d. “If I cut down gradually, I should be able to quit.”
7. A patient is using the Commit lozenge 2 mg to help quit smoking and reports nausea and indigestion. The nurse will instruct the patient to perform which action?
a. Allow the lozenge to dissolve slowly over 20 to 30 minutes.
b. Chew the lozenge thoroughly before swallowing it.
c. Increase to 4 mg and use less often.
d. Take the lozenge with food and a full glass of water.
8. A patient is brought to the emergency department by a family member. The patient reports seeing colored lights and describes feeling bugs crawling under the skin. The nurse suspects that this patient is abusing which drug?
9. The nurse is caring for a patient who is chronically irritable and anxious and prone to violent behaviors. The patient has several teeth missing and has dental caries in the remaining teeth. The nurse suspects previous chronic use of which drug?
10. The nurse is teaching a patient who has completed detoxification for alcohol abuse who will be discharged home with a prescription for disulfiram (Antabuse). Which statement by the patient indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “Even topical products containing alcohol can have serious adverse effects while I am taking this drug.”
b. “If I experience drowsiness or skin rash, I should discontinue this drug immediately.”
c. “It is safe to take a product containing alcohol one week after the last dose of disulfiram.”
d. “This drug acts by blocking the pleasurable effects of alcohol.”
Chapter 06: Herbal Therapies
1. A family member expresses concern that a patient is taking several herbal remedies and worries that they may be unsafe. The nurse will respond by saying that herbs
a. are classified as medications by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994.
b. are regulated by the government and are determined to be safe.
c. aren’t usually effective but are generally harmless.
d. should be discussed with the patient’s provider in conjunction with other medications.
2. A pregnant woman tells the nurse that she is taking ginger to reduce morning sickness. What will the nurse tell this patient?
a. “Ginger can cause fetal birth defects.”
b. “Ginger is not safe during pregnancy.”
c. “Ginger can cause abortion in low doses.”
d. “Ginger may be taken in low doses for up to 4 days.”
3. A patient asks the nurse about an herbal supplement and reports that it has a USP seal of approval. The nurse explains that this indicates
a. identity, potency, purity, and labeling accuracy.
b. premarket testing for safety and efficacy.
c. structure and function claims may be made.
d. the supplement’s ability to prevent and treat disease.
4. A woman reports using aloe vera to treat constipation. Which response by the nurse is correct?
a. “Aloe vera is for external use only.”
b. “Please tell me if you are taking cardiac medications or diuretics.”
c. “Side effects of aloe vera are common.”
d. “You may experience a decrease in menstrual flow while taking aloe vera.”
5. A woman who is experiencing hot flashes associated with menopause asks the nurse about using black cohosh. Which response by the nurse is correct?
a. “Black cohosh may be used long term in place of hormone replacement therapy.”
b. “Black cohosh may contribute to iron toxicity.”
c. “Black cohosh may interact with antihypertensive drugs.”
d. “Black cohosh treats menopausal symptoms without altering hormone levels.”
6. A patient who has HIV asks the nurse about taking echinacea to improve immune function. What will the nurse tell this patient?
a. “The root extract is useful for treating upper respiratory and urinary tract infections.”
b. “This use is currently being studied in patients who have HIV.”
c. “Use it as needed when antibiotics fail to treat your infections.”
d. “You may use it safely up to 8 weeks at a time as a preventive medication.”
7. The nurse is counseling a female patient who reports taking feverfew to treat premenstrual syndrome and migraines. Which statement by the patient indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “I should experience immediate effects with this herb.”
b. “I should not take feverfew if I get pregnant.”
c. “I should take feverfew with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to enhance its effects.”
d. “If I develop gastrointestinal (GI) upset, I should stop taking feverfew immediately.”
8. The nurse is providing preoperative education to a patient who will have surgery in several weeks. The patient denies taking anticoagulant medications but reports using herbal supplements. Which herb would cause the nurse to be concerned?
b. Ginkgo biloba
9. The nurse provides counseling to a patient who reports taking kava to treat anxiety-related symptoms. Which statement by the patient indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “I may take kava with lorazepam (Ativan).”
b. “I may develop a serious skin disorder while taking kava.”
c. “I should avoid alcohol while taking kava.”
d. “I should avoid St. John’s wort and valerian while taking kava.”
10. The spouse of a patient who is an alcoholic asks the nurse about dietary supplements that may help prevent liver disease. Which herb will the nurse suggest the patient discuss with a provider who has prescriptive authority?
a. Ginkgo biloba
c. Milk thistle
Chapter 07: Pediatric Pharmacology
1. The nurse is preparing to administer a medication to a 6-month-old infant. The nurse will monitor closely for signs of drug toxicity based on the knowledge that, compared to adults, infants have
a. an increased percentage of total body fat.
b. immature hepatic and renal function.
c. more protein receptor sites.
d. more rapid gastrointestinal transit time.
2. The nurse reviews information about a drug and learns that it is best absorbed in an acidic environment. When giving this drug to a 1-year-old patient, the nurse will expect to administer a dose that will be
a. equal to an adult dose.
b. less than an adult dose.
c. more than an adult dose.
d. twice the usual adult dose.
3. The nurse assumes care for an infant who is showing signs of drug toxicity to a drug given several hours prior. The nurse checks the dose and confirms that the dose is consistent with standard dosing guidelines. Which characteristic of the drug will likely explain this response in this patient?
a. It is acidic.
b. It is highly protein-bound.
c. It is not fat-soluble.
d. It is water-soluble.
4. The parent is concerned about giving a child medication because of the lack of knowledge about the effects of drugs on children. The nurse discusses legislation passed in 2002 and 2003 about pediatric pharmacology. Which is true about these laws?
a. They forbid providers from prescribing medications unless they have been FDA- approved for use in children.
b. They mandate consistent, evidence-based dosing guidelines for use in children.
c. They provide federal grants to fund pediatric pharmaceutical research.
d. They require drug manufacturers to study pediatric medication use.
5. The nurse will administer an intravenous medication to an adolescent patient. When preparing the adolescent for the IV insertion, which is an appropriate action by the nurse?
a. Allowing the patient to verbalize concerns about the procedure
b. Covering the insertion site with a bandage after the procedure is completed
c. Explaining any possible adverse drug reactions
d. Reassuring the patient that only one body part will be used
6. An infant will receive a topical medication. What instruction will the nurse include when teaching the parents how to administer the medication?
a. “Apply a thin layer to the affected area.”
b. “Apply liberally to the skin on and around the area.”
c. “Use the medication less frequently than what is recommended for adults.”
d. “Use the medication more frequently than what is recommended for adults.”
7. The provider has ordered that vitamin D drops be given to a newborn. Based on the knowledge of drug distribution in infants, the nurse understands that the infant may need
a. a higher dose.
b. a lower dose.
c. less frequent dosing.
d. more frequent dosing.
8. The nurse is caring for a 5-year-old child. The child is taking a drug that has a known therapeutic range in adults, and the nurse checks that the ordered dose is correct and notes that the child’s serum drug level is within normal limits. The child complains of a headache, which is a common sign of toxicity for this drug. Which action will the nurse take?
a. Administer the drug since the drug levels are normal.
b. Attribute the headache to non-drug causes.
c. Hold the next dose and contact the provider.
d. Request an order for an analgesic medication.
9. The nurse is preparing to give a 7-year-old child a bitter-tasting oral medication. The child asks the nurse if the medicine tastes bad. To help the child take this medication, which action will the nurse take?
a. Allow the child to delay taking the medication until the parent arrives.
b. Enlist the assistance of other staff to help restrain the child.
c. Tell the child that it doesn’t taste bad if it is swallowed quickly.
d. Tell the child that it tastes bad and offer a choice of beverages to drink afterwards.
10. The nurse is preparing to administer an oral liquid medication to an 11-month-old child who is fussy and uncooperative. Which action will the nurse take to facilitate giving this medication?
a. Adding honey to the medication to improve the taste
b. Putting the medication in the infant’s formula
c. Requesting an injectable form of the medication
d. Using a syringe and allowing the parent to give the medication
Chapter 08: Geriatric Pharmacology
1. The nurse is caring for an older adult patient who is receiving multiple medications. When monitoring this patient for potential drug toxicity, the nurse should review which lab values closely?
a. Complete blood count and serum glucose levels
b. Pancreatic enzymes and urinalysis
c. Serum creatinine and liver function tests (LFTs)
d. Serum lipids and electrolytes
2. An older patient who reports a 2- to 3-year history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms will begin taking ranitidine (Zantac) to treat this disorder. The patient has completed a health history form. The nurse notes that the patient answered “no” when asked if any medications were being taken. Which action will the nurse take next?
a. Ask whether the patient uses over-the-counter (OTC) medications.
b. Obtain a careful dietary history for the past two weeks.
c. Recommend that the patient take antacid tablets.
d. Suggest that the patient add high-potassium foods to the diet.
3. To assist an older, confused patient to adhere to a multidrug regimen, the nurse will provide which recommendation?
a. Avoid the use of over-the-counter medications.
b. Bring all medications to each clinic visit.
c. Review the manufacturer’s information insert about each medication.
d. Save money by getting each drug at the pharmacy with the lowest price.
4. The nurse is caring for an older patient who is taking 25 mg per day of hydrochlorothiazide. The nurse will closely monitor which lab value in this patient?
a. Coagulation studies
b. White blood count
c. Liver function tests
d. Serum potassium
5. The nurse is caring for an 82-year-old patient who takes digoxin to treat chronic atrial fibrillation. When caring for this patient, to monitor for drug side effects, what will the nurse will carefully assess?
a. Blood pressure
b. Heart rate
c. Oxygen saturation
d. Respiratory rate
6. The nurse is caring for an 80-year-old patient who is taking warfarin (Coumadin). Which action does the nurse understand is important when caring for this patient?
a. Encouraging the patient to rise slowly from a sitting position
b. Initiating a fall-risk protocol
c. Maintaining strict intake and output measures
d. Monitoring blood pressure frequently
7. An 80-year-old patient is being treated for an infection. An order for which type of antibiotic would cause concern for the nurse caring for this patient?
8. A 75-year-old patient will be discharged home with a prescription for an opioid analgesic. To help the patient minimize adverse effects, what will the nurse recommend for this patient?
a. Sucking on lozenges to moisten oral mucosa
b. Taking an antacid with each dose
c. Taking the medication on an empty stomach
d. Using a stool softener
9. A 75-year-old patient is readmitted to the hospital to treat recurrent pneumonia. The patient had been discharged home with a prescription for antibiotics 5 days prior. The nurse admitting this patient will take which initial action?
a. Ask the patient about over-the-counter drug use.
b. Ask the patient how many doses of the antibiotic have been taken.
c. Discuss increasing the antibiotic dose with the provider.
d. Obtain an order for a creatinine clearance test.
10. The nurse is performing an admission assessment on an 80-year-old patient who has frequent hospital admissions. The patient appears more disoriented and confused than usual. Which action by the nurse is correct?
a. Asking about medication doses
b. Asking for a neurologist consult
c. Requesting orders for liver function tests
d. Suspecting impaired renal function
Chapter 09: Collaboration in Community Settings
1. During a home visit, the nurse learns that a patient has not been taking the prescribed medications. The patient reports having no insurance and tells the nurse that the drug is too expensive. After learning that there is no substitute medication, the nurse will perform which action next?
a. Assist the patient to apply for a patient-assist program.
b. Contact the pharmacy to request a reduction in the cost of the drug.
c. Determine the patient’s annual income.
d. Give the patient the number of a charitable organization that may be able to help.
2. A patient calls the clinic and tells the nurse that a newly prescribed medication isn’t working. What is the nurse’s next action?
a. Notify the provider and discuss increasing the dose.
b. Question the patient about compliance with the regimen.
c. Review the drug information with the patient.
d. Suggest the patient discuss changing medications with the provider.
3. The parent of a school-age child tells the nurse that the child often misses the midday dose of a medication because the child forgets to take it to school. What will the nurse suggest?
a. Asking the pharmacist to divide the prescription into two labeled packages
b. Discussing a different medication with the child’s provider
c. Putting the bottle of pills in the child’s lunchbox
d. Requesting permission for the child to come home from school during the day
4. The community health nurse is teaching a group of elderly residents in an assisted care facility about medication use. The nurse will remind the residents that over-the-counter (OTC) medications
a. are not as effective as prescription medications.
b. are not recommended for older adults.
c. are safer than prescription medications.
d. should be reviewed with a provider before taking.
5. The nurse is teaching a patient about a new medication that will be administered using a metered-dose inhaler. To evaluate the patient’s understanding about how to use the device, what will the nurse do?
a. Ask the patient to give a return demonstration using the inhaler.
b. Give the patient written instructions to review as needed.
c. Offer the patient an Internet web address with information about the product.
d. Provide information about drug effects and adverse reactions.
6. The community health nurse is preparing to administer a medication to a patient in the patient’s home. The order reads “amoxicillin as directed BID PO.” The nurse will perform which action?
a. Administer the medication as ordered on the prescription label.
b. Ask the patient to take the medication as ordered.
c. Contact the provider to confirm the correct dose of the medication.
d. Review the drug information to verify the correct dose.
7. A nursing student is working as a home health aide. The patient asks the aide to give a medication, and the aide calls the nurse for permission to perform this task. Which is the correct response by the nurse?
a. “I can authorize you to give this medication.”
b. “If you have taken a pharmacology course, you may give the medication.”
c. “You may assist the patient to self-administer the medication.”
d. “You should never assist with medications in the home setting.”
8. The school nurse happens to observe a child pulling a pill out of a backpack and preparing to take it. What action will the nurse take?
a. Ask the child to describe the medication, dose, and reason for taking it.
b. Ask the child to keep all pills in the nurse’s office.
c. Call the child’s provider for a telephone order to give the medication.
d. Contact the child’s parent to request a properly labeled prescription.
9. The home health nurse learns that an immigrant family relies on folk healers when treating illnesses among family members. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Acknowledge the family’s beliefs while pointing out how these are not effective.
b. Ask the family elder to explain how a prescribed regimen will be more effective.
c. Give the family a list of dangerous practices to avoid using.
d. Incorporate any safe, non-conflicting practices into the plan of care.
10. The nurse is preparing to teach a patient who will begin taking a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. What is most important when teaching patients about MAO inhibitors?
a. Emphasizing the importance of potassium intake
b. Giving detailed drug information
c. Reviewing dietary guidelines
d. Providing a schedule for medication administration
Chapter 10: The Role of the Nurse in Drug Research
1. The nurse is obtaining consent from a subject newly recruited for a clinical drug trial that will last for 6 months. All subjects will be given gift certificates for participating. One subject says, “Well, I guess if the drug doesn’t work, I’ll just have to put up with the symptoms for 6 months.” What will the nurse tell the subject?
a. “Participation for the duration of the study is required.”
b. “Participation may end at any time without penalty.”
c. “Withdrawal from the study may end at any time, but the gift certificate will not be given.”
d. “You can request placement in the treatment group.”
2. The nurse is assisting with a clinical drug trial in which the side effects of two effective drugs are being compared. A patient who would benefit from either drug has elected to withdraw from the study, and the nurse assists with the paperwork to facilitate this. This is an example of
3. During a clinical drug trial for a new medication, researchers note a previously unknown serious adverse effect occurring in more than 50% of subjects. The study is discontinued. Which ethical principle is being exercised?
c. Respect for persons
4. In a 5-year experimental clinical trial to investigate a new cancer treatment, researchers in the second year note overwhelming improvement in almost all of the subjects in the treatment group. The lead researcher elects to continue the study. Which ethical principle is being violated?
c. Respect for persons
5. The nurse is enrolling subjects for a double-blind experimental study. One patient asks the nurse to explain the role of the experimental group. The nurse will explain that subjects in the experimental group in this type of study
a. are selected for participation in that group.
b. have unique baseline characteristics.
c. receive a placebo.
d. receive the treatment being evaluated.
6. The nurse is obtaining signatures on consent forms for participation in a clinical drug trial. One patient says, “I’m not sure I want to do this, but I need the cash.” The nurse will take which action?
a. Ask the patient to clarify concerns.
b. Reinforce that cash is given to all subjects equally.
c. Report this statement to the party named on the consent.
d. Review the elements of the study and obtain consent.
7. Which is characteristic of preclinical in vivo testing?
a. A comparison of experimental and control data in animals
b. A study conducted in a test tube in a laboratory
c. A study that determines the parameters of safe therapeutic doses
d. A study to assess the seriousness of the disease to be treated
8. Many drugs marketed in the 1980s may not be effective in a majority of the population. The nurse understands that this is because these drugs
a. did not pass through the appropriate phases of clinical trials.
b. did not require human subject protections and are invalid.
c. were not tested on women, minorities, or children.
d. were tested on healthy subjects only.
9. The nurse is assisting with data collection in a study of drug effects in healthy subjects. The nurse assists with blood and urine collection to determine serum drug levels and the presence of metabolites in the urine. Which phase of a drug study does this represent?
a. Phase I
b. Phase II
c. Phase III
d. Phase IV
10. The nurse is enrolling subjects for a clinical drug trial in which subjects will be randomly assigned to either a treatment or a placebo group. The pills in both groups will be in identical packaging with identical appearance. This is an example of which type of study?
Chapter 11: The Nursing Process in Patient-Centered Pharmacotherapy
1. The nurse provides teaching about the sedative side effects of a medication ordered to be given at 8:00 PM daily. The patient works a 7:00 PM to 7:00 AM shift. The nurse explores options including taking the medication at 8:00 AM instead of in the evening. Which QSEN competency do the nurse’s actions best demonstrate?
a. Collaboration and teamwork
b. Evidence-based practice
c. Patient-centered care
d. Patient safety
2. The nurse learns that a patient cannot afford a prescribed medication and enlists the assistance of the social worker and an outside agency to provide medications at a lower cost. Which QSEN competency do the nurse’s actions best demonstrate?
a. Collaboration and teamwork
b. Evidence-based practice
c. Patient-centered care
d. Quality improvement
3. A 5-year-old child with type 1 diabetes mellitus has repeated hospitalizations for episodes of hyperglycemia related to poor control. The parents tell the nurse that they can’t keep track of everything that has to be done to care for their child. The nurse reviews medications, diet, and symptom management with the parents and draws up a daily checklist for the family to use. This is an example of the principles outlined in
a. Guiding Principles of Patient Engagement.
b. National Alliance for Quality Care.
c. Nursing Process.
d. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses.
4. The nurse is preparing to administer a medication and reviews the patient’s chart for drug allergies, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. The nurse’s actions are reflective of which phase of the nursing process?
5. Which assessment is categorized as objective data?
a. A list of herbal supplements regularly used
b. Lab values associated with drugs the patient is taking
c. The ages and relationship to the patient of all household members
d. Usual dietary patterns and intake
6. The nurse reviews a patient’s database and learns that the patient lives alone, is forgetful, and does not have an established routine. The patient will be sent home with three new medications to be taken at different times of day. The nurse develops a daily medication chart and enlists a family member to put the patient’s pills in a pill organizer. This is an example of which phase of the nursing process?
7. A patient who is hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease wants to go home. The nurse and the patient discuss the patient’s situation and decide that the patient may go home when able to perform self-care without dyspnea and hypoxia. This is an example of which phase of the nursing process?
8. A patient will be sent home with a metered-dose inhaler, and the nurse is providing teaching. Which is a correctly written goal for this process?
a. The nurse will demonstrate correct use of a metered-dose inhaler to the patient.
b. The nurse will teach the patient how to administer medication with a metered-dose inhaler.
c. The patient will know how to self-administer the medication using the metered-dose inhaler.
d. The patient will independently administer the medication using the metered-dose inhaler at the end of the session.
9. The nurse is developing a plan of care for a patient who has chronic lung disease and hypoxia. The patient has been admitted for increased oxygen needs above a baseline of 2 L/min. The nurse develops a goal stating, “The patient will have oxygen saturations of > 95% on room air at the time of discharge from the hospital.” What is wrong with this goal?
a. It cannot be evaluated.
b. It is not measurable.
c. It is not patient-centered.
d. It is not realistic.
10. The nurse is developing a teaching plan for an elderly patient who will begin taking an antihypertensive drug that causes dizziness and orthostatic hypotension. Which nursing diagnosis is appropriate for this patient?
a. Deficient knowledge related to drug side effects
b. Ineffective health maintenance related to age
c. Readiness for enhanced knowledge related to medication side effects
d. Risk for injury related to side effects of the medication
Chapter 12: Safety and Quality in Pharmacotherapy
1. When the nurse practices the “5-plus-5” rights of medication administration, what does it ensure?
a. Adequate information is given
b. Cost-effective use of medications
c. Informed consent for drug administration
d. Safe administration of medications
2. In order to ensure that a medication is given to the right patient, the nurse must perform which action?
a. Ask the patient to spell their last name.
b. Match the patient with a photo ID.
c. Swipe a bar code on the patient’s ID bracelet.
d. Verify the patient using two identifiers.
3. A health care provider calls a nursing unit to leave a telephone order for a PRN antipyretic medication for a child. The provider tells the nurse to “give PO acetaminophen for a fever greater than 101° F per protocol.” What will the nurse do next?
a. Ask the provider to verify how many mg per kg per dose and how frequently to give the medication.
b. Look up the protocol in the unit manual and write the drug order for the provider to sign.
c. Provide the child’s weight to the hospital pharmacist to write the order based on the protocol.
d. Transcribe the verbal order to the order sheet as “give PO acetaminophen for a fever greater than 101° F per protocol.”
4. The pediatric nurse reviews a hand-written medication order which reads, “09/16/2013, acetaminophen 160 mg (5 mL) PO q4h for fever.” What will the nurse do next?
a. Administer the drug when indicated.
b. Ask the provider to confirm if dose is correct for the patient’s age.
c. Clarify the nursing assessments necessary for giving a dose.
d. Contact the provider to request patient allergy information.
5. The nurse is caring for a 20-kg child who is ordered to receive amoxicillin 400 mg PO TID for 10 days. The nurse reviews the drug information and notes that the correct dose of amoxicillin is 40 to 50 mg/kg/day in two to three divided doses. Which action by the nurse is correct?
a. Adjust the drug dose based on drug manufacturer dosing information.
b. Administer the medication as ordered.
c. Ask the pharmacist to double-check that the dose is correct.
d. Contact the provider and ask whether the drug should be given BID instead of TID.
6. The nurse is preparing to administer a medication from a unit-dose system. The nurse verifies that the medication, dose, and time are correct and that the expiration date was the day prior. Which action is correct?
a. Administer the medication and observe for adequate drug effects.
b. Notify the pharmacist and provider of a medication error.
c. Return the medication to the pharmacy to be replaced.
d. Verify the right patient and administer the medication.
7. The nurse is preparing to administer a chewable tablet to a preschool-age child. The child’s parent reports always crushing the tablet and mixing it with pudding when giving it at home. What is the nurse’s next action?
a. Ask the pharmacist if the drug may be crushed.
b. Crush the tablet and mix it with pudding.
c. Insist that the tablet must be chewed as ordered.
d. Request a liquid form of the medication from the pharmacy.
8. The nurse is caring for a patient who will have surgery that morning. The patient usually takes an antihypertensive medication every morning. The patient has been NPO since midnight. What action will the nurse perform?
a. Ask the patient to swallow the pill without water.
b. Give the medication with a small sip of water.
c. Consult the provider and surgeon about giving the medication.
d. Hold the medication until after the patient’s surgery.
9. The nurse is caring for a patient who has asthma. The provider has ordered an albuterol metered-dose inhaler (MDI), 2 puffs q4 to 6h PRN wheezing. The patient’s last dose was 4 hours ago. What is the nurse’s next action?
a. Administer 2 puffs of albuterol with the MDI.
b. Auscultate the patient’s lung sounds.
c. Give the albuterol if the patient reports wheezing.
d. Give the medication and evaluate its effectiveness.
10. The nurse assumes care of a patient who had surgery that morning. The provider has ordered hydrocodone (Lortab) every 4 hours for mild to moderate pain and morphine sulfate for moderate to severe pain. The nurse reviews the patient’s record and notes the patient has received two doses of hydrocodone 4 hours apart for a pain level of 7 to 8 on a scale of 1 to 10 and has reported a decrease in pain to a level of 6 to 7 after 30 minutes. It has been 4 hours since the last dose, and the patient reports a pain level of 7. What will the nurse do?
a. Administer the hydrocodone.
b. Administer morphine.
c. Ask the patient which drug to give.
d. Notify the provider of the patient’s current pain level.
Chapter 13: Medication Administration
1. The nurse is assisting the parent of a 6-month-old infant to administer an oral liquid medication. The parent asks why the medication can’t be given in a bottle of formula to make it taste better. How will the nurse respond?
a. “Adding a medication to the formula will cause the formula to curdle.”
b. “Formula and medications can form toxic compounds if mixed together.”
c. “The infant may not always take the entire bottle of formula.”
d. “This may cause the infant to refuse formula in the future.”
2. A patient asks the nurse if an enteric-coated tablet can be crushed and put in pudding to make it easier to swallow. How will the nurse respond to the patient?
a. “Crushing the medication can lead to a possibly toxic medication dose.”
b. “Crushing the medication is safe and can prevent gagging on pills.”
c. “The tablet may be done if a small amount of pudding is used.”
d. “The tablet may be dissolved in liquid but not crushed and put in food.”
3. A patient is ordered to take an extended-release medication twice daily but has difficulty swallowing the tablet because of its size. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Contact the provider to discuss an alternate form of the medication.
b. Crush the tablet and put it in applesauce to help the patient swallow it.
c. Cut the tablet in half so the patient can take it more easily.
d. Dissolve the tablet in liquid.
4. The nurse is teaching a patient about using sublingual nitroglycerin at home. Which statement by the patient indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “I may put the tablet in food if I don’t like the taste.”
b. “I may take a sip of water after placing the tablet in my mouth.”
c. “I will place the tablet between my cheek and gum.”
d. “I will place the tablet under my tongue and let it absorb.”
5. The nurse is teaching a nursing student about giving liquid medications. Which statement by the student indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “A suspension is a mixture in which drug particles are dissolved in solution.”
b. “I will line up the bottom of the medication curve with the line in the syringe.”
c. “I will need to shake an elixir before measuring the dose.”
d. “I will not need to refrigerate liquids once they are reconstituted.”
6. A patient asks the nurse why the provider has ordered a transdermal form of a medication. How will the nurse respond?
a. “The patch can always be cut when dosage adjustments are needed.”
b. “Drug levels fluctuate less with the patch.”
c. “There are fewer systemic side effects with transdermal patches.”
d. “There is less risk of toxicity when using a patch.”
7. When administering topical medications, which is an important nursing action?
a. Applying the medication liberally
b. Cleaning skin with alcohol before applying
c. Using sterile technique
d. Wearing gloves
8. A patient who has asthma will begin taking an inhaled corticosteroid medication to be used with a spacer. The patient asks why the spacer is necessary. The nurse will explain that the spacer
a. allows a larger dose to be given safely.
b. distributes medication to target tissues.
c. minimizes adverse effects of the steroid.
d. prevents contamination of the metered-dose inhaler.
9. The nurse is teaching a parent to administer medications using a child’s gastrostomy tube. The parent asks why it is necessary to give water after each medication. The nurse explains that the water is given for which purpose?
a. To decrease gastrointestinal upset
b. To dilute the medication and enhance absorption
c. To ensure that all medication is infused into the stomach
d. To improve overall hydration
10. The nurse is preparing to administer a rectal suppository antipyretic medication. Which action by the nurse is correct?
a. Allowing the suppository to soften at room temperature before inserting
b. Asking the patient to lie on the right side during insertion of the medication
c. Having the patient remain in a side-lying position for 20 minutes after insertion
d. Using a lubricant such as petrolatum gel (Vaseline) to lubricate the medication
Chapter 15: Vitamin and Mineral Replacement
1. A patient asks the nurse about whether it is necessary to take vitamin supplements. The patient is a 26-year-old female who is contemplating pregnancy. The nurse will recommend which supplement?
a. Calcium and vitamin D
b. Folic acid (folate)
d. Vitamin C
2. A patient reports wanting to take vitamin A to prevent blindness. Which response by the nurse is correct?
a. “Vitamin A can be taken prophylactically without serious adverse effects.”
b. “Vitamin A does not have any effects on vision.”
c. “Vitamin A is difficult to obtain through dietary intake alone.”
d. “Vitamin A is stored in the liver for up to 2 years, and toxicity can occur.”
3. A young woman tells the nurse that she has a strong family history of osteoporosis and that she has been taking calcium supplements. Which vitamin will the nurse recommend as an adjunct to calcium supplementation?
a. Vitamin A
b. Vitamin D
c. Vitamin E
d. Vitamin K
4. A patient who spends most of the time indoors has been taking megadoses of vitamin D and is worried about vitamin D toxicity. The nurse will tell this patient to report which sign that may indicate vitamin D toxicity?
a. Blurred vision
b. Darkening of the skin
c. Nausea and vomiting
5. Supplementation with which fat-soluble vitamin should a patient discuss with a provider before having surgery?
a. Vitamin A
b. Vitamin D
c. Vitamin E
d. Vitamin K
6. A child is brought to the emergency department after ingesting a grandparent’s warfarin (Coumadin) tablets. The nurse will anticipate administering which form of vitamin K?
a. K1 (phytonadione)
b. K2 (menaquinone)
c. K3 (menadione)
d. K4 (menadiol)
7. The nurse is teaching a patient about water-soluble vitamins. Which statement by the patient indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “Water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine.”
b. “Water-soluble vitamins are generally toxic.”
c. “Water-soluble vitamins are highly protein-bound.”
d. “Water-soluble vitamins are usually metabolized in the liver.”
8. The nurse is caring for a patient who has a history of chronic alcohol abuse. The patient is confused and exhibits nystagmus and blurred vision. Which vitamin will the nurse expect to administer to this patient?
a. Nicotinic acid
9. The nurse is caring for an elderly patient who has poor nutrition. The nurse notes cracked skin at the corners of the patient’s mouth along with generalized scaly dermatitis. The nurse will contact the provider to discuss a possible deficiency of which vitamin?
a. Nicotinic acid
10. A patient is taking nicotinic acid (Niacin) to treat hyperlipidemia. The patient reports a flushing sensation along with gastrointestinal irritation. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Contact the provider to discuss possible thromboembolism.
b. Discuss decreasing the patient’s dose of nicotinic acid with the provider.
c. Reassure the patient that these effects will decrease over time.
d. Suggest that the patient take niacin with a full glass of cool water.
Chapter 16: Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement
1. A patient’s serum osmolality is 305 mOsm/kg. Which term describes this patient’s body fluid osmolality?
2. A patient is admitted after experiencing vomiting and diarrhea for several days. The provider orders intravenous lactated Ringer’s solution. The nurse understands that this fluid is given for which purpose?
a. To increase interstitial and intracellular hydration
b. To maintain plasma volume over time
c. To pull water from the interstitial space into the extracellular fluid
d. To replace water and electrolytes
3. A patient is being treated for shock after a motor vehicle accident. The provider orders 6% dextran 75 to be given intravenously. The nurse should expect which outcome as the result of this infusion?
a. Decreased urine output
b. Improved blood oxygenation
c. Increased interstitial fluid
d. Stabilization of heart rate and blood pressure
4. The nurse is caring for a patient who weighs 75 kg. The patient has intravenous (IV) fluids infusing at a rate of 50 mL/hour and has consumed 100 mL of fluids orally in the past 24 hours. Which action will the nurse take?
a. Contact the provider to ask about increasing the IV rate to 90 mL/hour.
b. Discuss with the provider the need to increase the IV rate to 150 mL/hour.
c. Encourage the patient to drink more water so the IV can be discontinued.
d. Instruct the patient to drink 250 mL of water every 8 hours.
5. The nurse is caring for a patient who has a heart rate of 98 beats per minute and a blood pressure of 82/58 mm Hg. The patient is lethargic, is complaining of muscle weakness, and has had gastroenteritis for several days. Based on this patient’s vital signs, which sodium value would the nurse expect?
a. 126 mEq/L
b. 140 mEq/L
c. 145 mEq/L
d. 158 mEq/L
6. The nurse is caring for a patient who has had severe vomiting. The patient’s serum sodium level is 130 mEq/L. The nurse will expect the patient’s provider to order which treatment?
a. Diuretic therapy
b. Intravenous hypertonic 5% saline
c. Intravenous normal saline 0.9%
d. Oral sodium supplements
7. The nurse is caring for a newly admitted patient who has severe gastroenteritis. The patient’s electrolytes reveal a serum sodium level of 140 mEq/L and a serum potassium level of 3.5 mEq/L. The nurse receives an order for intravenous 5% dextrose and normal saline with 20 mEq/L potassium chloride to infuse at 125 mL per hour. Which action is necessary prior to administering this fluid?
a. Evaluate the patient’s urine output.
b. Contact the provider to order arterial blood gases.
c. Request an order for an initial potassium bolus.
d. Suggest a diet low in sodium and potassium.
8. A patient who is being treated for dehydration is receiving 5% dextrose and 0.45% normal saline with 20 mEq/L potassium chloride at a rate of 125 mL/hour. The nurse assuming care for the patient reviews the patient’s serum electrolytes and notes a serum sodium level of 140 mEq/L and a serum potassium level of 3.6 mEq/L. The patient had a urine output of 250 mL during the last 12-hour shift. Which action will the nurse take?
a. Contact the patient’s provider to discuss increasing the potassium chloride to 40 mEq/L.
b. Continue the intravenous fluids as ordered and reassess the patient frequently.
c. Notify the provider and discuss increasing the rate of fluids to 200 mL/hour.
d. Stop the intravenous fluids and notify the provider of the assessment findings.
9. A patient has a serum potassium level of 2.7 mEq/L. The patient’s provider has determined that the patient will need 200 mEq of potassium to replace serum losses. How will the nurse caring for this patient expect to administer the potassium?
a. As a single-dose 200 mEq oral tablet
b. As an intravenous bolus over 15 to 20 minutes
c. In an intravenous solution at a rate of 10 mEq/hour
d. In an intravenous solution at a rate of 45 mEq/hour
10. A patient is taking a thiazide diuretic and reports anorexia and fatigue. The nurse suspects which electrolyte imbalance in this patient?
Chapter 17: Nutritional Support
1. The nurse is preparing to administer enteral nutrition to a patient. Which assessment finding would prompt the nurse to hold the nutrition and notify the patient’s provider?
a. Blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg
b. Decreased bowel sounds
c. A productive cough
d. A temperature of 37.8° C
2. The nurse is preparing to administer an enteral feeding to a patient who receives 300 mL of Isocal over 30 minutes every 4 hours. The nurse checks the residual prior to initiating the feeding and notes a residual amount of 50 mL of formula. Which action will the nurse take next?
a. Administer the feeding as ordered.
b. Administer the feeding over 60 minutes.
c. Hold the feeding and notify the patient’s provider.
d. Wait 1 hour and recheck the residual again.
3. The provider calculates the enteral nutrition needs for a nonambulatory patient and determines that the patient will need 300 mL of Ultracal every 4 hours. Which method of delivery will the nurse use to administer these feedings?
a. 300 mL every 4 hours given via syringe as a 10-minute bolus
b. 300 mL every 4 hours given via enteral pump as a 45-minute infusion
c. 75 mL per hour via enteral pump as a continuous infusion
d. 150 mL every 2 hours via gravity infusion
4. The nurse is preparing a patient who will receive intermittent enteral nutrition at home with a hyperosmolar solution. What information will the nurse include when teaching this patient?
a. How to perform the Valsalva maneuver
b. The need to consume extra fluids between feedings
c. The need to decrease dietary fiber
d. The need to remain supine during infusion of the enteral solution
5. The nurse assumes care of a patient who has been receiving intermittent enteral feedings of 240 mL of Osmolite every 4 hours for the past 48 hours. The patient is in bed with the head of the bed elevated 60 degrees. The enteral tubing is intact, and the enteral pump is infusing at 360 mL per hour. The nurse notes 60 mL of solution left in the bag. The tubing is not labeled. What will the nurse do?
a. Change and label the enteral tubing when this infusion is complete.
b. Increase the infusion rate to 480 mL per hour to complete the infusion.
c. Lower the head of the bed to 30 degrees.
d. Stop the infusion and check for residual before resuming the infusion.
6. The nurse dilutes an antibiotic before administering it through a patient’s nasogastric tube. The patient asks why this is necessary. The nurse explains that diluting the antibiotic helps to
a. improve absorption.
b. improve hydration.
c. prevent diarrhea.
d. prevent emboli.
7. The nurse is caring for a patient who is receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nurse will carefully monitor this patient for which symptom(s)?
a. Coughing and shortness of breath
b. Decreased breath sounds
d. Nausea and abdominal distension
8. The nurse is preparing to hang a new bag for a patient who is receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). During this procedure, the nurse will instruct the patient to take a deep breath and then perform which action?
a. Exhale slowly and bear down.
b. Exhale slowly to the count of 10.
c. Hold the breath and bear down.
d. Take several rapid, shallow breaths.
9. Which patient is most likely to be a candidate for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) rather than enteral nutrition?
a. A patient who is comatose after having had a stroke
b. A patient who has a fractured mandible following a motor vehicle accident
c. A patient who has cerebral palsy and severe dysphagia
d. A patient who is pregnant and has intractable hyperemesis gravidarum
10. The nurse is preparing to administer enteral nutrition to a patient who has had a stroke and who cannot swallow. A family member asks why the patient isn’t receiving intravenous nutrition. What information will the nurse provide to the family member?
a. Parenteral nutrition carries a higher risk of infection.
b. Parenteral nutrition does not provide sufficient calories.
c. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of aspiration.
d. Parenteral nutrition is hyperosmolar and increases the risk of dehydration.
Chapter 18: Adrenergic Agonists and Adrenergic Blockers
1. The nurse is caring for a patient who has asthma and administers a selective beta2-adrenergic agonist to treat bronchospasm. The nurse will expect this drug to also cause which side effect?
a. Increased blood glucose
b. Increased blood pressure
c. Increased heart rate
d. Increased gastrointestinal (GI) motility
2. A patient who has asthma is diagnosed with hypertension. The nurse understands that which drug will be safe to give this patient?
a. Pindolol (Visken)
b. Metoprolol (Lopressor)
c. Nadolol (Corgard)
d. Propranolol (Inderal)
3. The nurse administers subcutaneous epinephrine to a patient who is experiencing an anaphylactic reaction. The nurse should expect to monitor the patient for which symptom?
b. Decreased urine output
d. Nausea and vomiting
4. An adult patient is brought to the emergency department for treatment of an asthma exacerbation. The patient uses inhaled albuterol as needed to control wheezing. The nurse notes expiratory wheezing, tremors, restlessness, and a heart rate of 120 beats per minute. The nurse suspects that the patient has
a. over-used the albuterol.
b. not been using albuterol.
c. taken a beta-adrenergic blocker.
d. taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor.
5. The nurse is caring for a patient who is receiving intravenous dopamine (Intropin). The nurse notes erythema and swelling at the IV insertion site. What is the nurse’s initial action?
a. Apply warm soaks to the area.
b. Monitor the patient closely for hypertension.
c. Obtain an order for an electrocardiogram.
d. Notify the provider of a need for phentolamine mesylate (Regitine).
6. The nurse is teaching a patient how to use phenylephrine HCl (Neo-Synephrine) nasal spray to treat congestion from a viral upper respiratory infection. What instruction will the nurse give the patient?
a. Stop using the medication after 3 days.
b. Spray the medication into the nose while lying supine.
c. Use frequently since systemic side effects do not occur.
d. Use the medication with any other over-the-counter medications.
7. The nurse is caring for a patient who will begin taking atenolol (Tenormin). What information will the nurse include when teaching the patient about taking this medication?
a. The drug must be taken twice daily.
b. The patient must rise slowly from a chair or bed.
c. The medication is safe to take during pregnancy.
d. Use NSAIDs as needed for mild to moderate pain.
8. The nurse is caring for a patient who has recently begun taking atenolol (Tenormin) to treat hypertension. The patient reports dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and decreased libido since beginning the medication. What will the nurse do?
a. Hold the next dose until the provider can be notified of these side effects.
b. Reassure the patient that these symptoms are common and not worrisome.
c. Recommend that the patient discuss these effects with the provider.
d. Suggest that the patient request a different beta-adrenergic blocker.
9. A patient will begin taking albuterol (Proventil) to treat asthma. When teaching the patient about this drug, the nurse will make which recommendation?
a. Report rapid or irregular heart rate.
b. Drink 8 to 16 extra ounces of fluid each day.
c. Monitor serum glucose daily.
d. Take a calcium supplement.
10. A patient is taking doxazosin mesylate (Cardura) 1 mg per day to treat hypertension. The nurse notes a blood pressure of 110/72 mm Hg and a heart rate of 92 beats per minute. The nurse will contact the provider to discuss which change to the drug regimen?
a. Changing to a beta-adrenergic blocker
b. Decreasing the drug dose
c. Increasing the drug dose
d. Adding a diuretic
Chapter 19: Cholinergic Agonists and Anticholinergics
1. The nurse is preparing to administer a drug and learns that it is an indirect-acting cholinergic agonist. The nurse understands that this drug
a. acts on muscarinic receptors.
b. acts on nicotinic receptors.
c. inhibits cholinesterase.
d. inhibits cholinergic receptors.
2. A nursing student asks why a direct-acting cholinergic agonist drug that is selective to muscarinic receptors is described as being non-specific. The nurse will explain that this is because
a. muscarinic receptors are present in many different tissues.
b. the action of cholinesterase alters the bioavailability at different sites.
c. these drugs can also affect nicotinic receptors.
d. they vary in their reversible and irreversible effects.
3. The nurse is preparing to administer bethanechol (Urecholine) to a patient who is experiencing urinary retention. The nurse notes that the patient has a blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg and a heart rate of 98 beats per minute. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Administer the drug and monitor urine output.
b. Administer the medication and monitor vital signs frequently.
c. Give the medication and notify the provider of the increased heart rate.
d. Hold the medication and notify the provider of the decreased blood pressure.
4. The nurse administers bethanechol (Urecholine) to a patient to treat urinary retention. After 30 minutes, the patient voids 800 mL of urine and reports having a loose stool but no cramping or gastrointestinal pain. The patient’s blood pressure is 110/70 mm Hg. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Notify the provider of bethanechol adverse effects.
b. Record the urine output and the blood pressure and continue to monitor.
c. Request an order for intravenous atropine sulfate.
d. Suggest another dose of bethanechol to the provider.
5. The nurse is teaching a patient who will begin taking bethanechol (Urecholine). Which statement by the patient indicates a need for further teaching?
a. “Excessive sweating is a normal reaction to this medication.”
b. “Excess salivation is a serious side effect.”
c. “I should get out of bed slowly while taking this drug.”
d. “I will not take the drug if my heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute.”
6. The nurse is caring for a male patient with myasthenia gravis who will begin taking ambenonium chloride (Mytelase). When performing a health history, the nurse will be concerned about a history of which condition in this patient?
a. Benign prostatic hypertrophy
b. Chronic constipation
c. Erectile dysfunction
d. Upper respiratory infection
7. The nurse is preparing to administer the anticholinergic medication benztropine (Cogentin) to a patient who has Parkinson’s disease. The nurse understands that this drug is used primarily for which purpose?
a. To decrease drooling and excessive salivation
b. To improve mobility and muscle strength
c. To prevent urinary retention
d. To suppress tremors and muscle rigidity
8. The nurse is caring for a postoperative patient and notes that the patient received atropine sulfate preoperatively. Which assessment finding would prompt the nurse to notify the provider?
a. Absent bowel sounds
c. Dry mouth
d. Heart rate of 78 beats per minute
9. A patient who has irritable bowel syndrome would most likely receive which type of drug to treat this condition?
a. An anticholinergic
b. A cholinergic esterase inhibitor
c. A muscarinic agent
d. A nicotinic agent
10. The nurse is teaching a patient about the use of an anticholinergic medication. What information will the nurse include when teaching this patient about this medication?
a. “Check your heart rate frequently to monitor for bradycardia.”
b. “Drink extra fluids while you are taking this medication.”
c. “Rise from a chair slowly to avoid dizziness when taking this drug.”
d. “Use gum or lozenges to decrease dry mouth caused by this drug.”
Chapter 20: Central Nervous System Stimulants
1. The nurse is performing a medication history on a patient who reports using phentermine HCl (Suprenza) 15 mg/day for the past 3 months as an appetite suppressant. The nurse will contact the patient’s provider to discuss
a. changing the medication to phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia).
b. increasing the dose to 37.5 mg/day since tolerance has likely occurred.
c. initiating a slow taper of the phentermine.
d. stopping the drug immediately since long-term use is not recommended.
2. A patient reports having recurring headaches described as 1 to 2 headaches per day for several weeks. The nurse understands that these headaches are most likely descriptive of which type of headache?
a. Cluster headache
b. Migraine headache
c. Simple headache
d. Tension headache
3. The nurse is caring for a patient who has migraine headaches. The patient reports having these headaches more frequently. Which is an appropriate recommendation for this patient?
a. “Avoid chocolate and caffeine.”
b. “Engage in strenuous exercise.”
c. “Have a glass of red wine with dinner.”
d. “Take ibuprofen prophylactically.”
4. The nurse is caring for a 7-year-old child who has difficulty concentrating and completing tasks and who cannot seem to sit still. Which diagnostic test may be ordered to assist with a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this child?
a. Computerized tomography (CT) of the head
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
d. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain
5. A patient has been using an amphetamine drug as an anorexiant for several weeks and asks the nurse about long-term adverse effects of this type of medication. The nurse will explain to the patient that these drugs
a. can cause cardiac dysrhythmias.
b. contribute to the development of narcolepsy.
c. do not have severe effects when used properly.
d. will cause orthostatic hypotension.
6. The nurse is teaching a child and a parent about taking methylphenidate (Ritalin) to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which statement by the parent indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “I should give this drug to my child at bedtime.”
b. “My child should avoid products containing caffeine.”
c. “The drug should be stopped immediately if my child develops aggression.”
d. “We should monitor my child’s weight since weight gain is common.”
7. The parent of a child who is taking amphetamine (Adderall) to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) asks the provider to recommend an over-the-counter medication to treat a cold. What will the nurse tell the parent?
a. “Avoid any products containing pseudoephedrine or caffeine.”
b. “Never give over-the-counter medications with Adderall.”
c. “Sudafed is a safe and effective decongestant.”
d. “Use any over-the-counter medication from the local pharmacy.”
8. The nurse is checking an 8-year-old child who has attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into a clinic for an annual well-child visit. The child takes methylphenidate HCl (Ritalin). Which assessments are especially important for this child?
a. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation
b. Height, weight, and blood pressure
c. Measures of fine- and gross-motor development
d. Nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal upset
9. The parent of an adolescent who has taken methylphenidate 20 mg/day for 6 months for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) brings the child to clinic for evaluation of a recent onset of nausea, vomiting, and headaches. The parent expresses concern that the child seems less focused and more hyperactive than before. What will the nurse do next?
a. Ask the child whether the drug is being taken as prescribed.
b. Contact the provider to discuss increasing the dose to 30 mg/day.
c. Recommend taking the drug with meals to reduce gastrointestinal side effects.
d. Report signs of drug toxicity to the patient’s provider.
10. The nurse is teaching a parent about methylphenidate (Ritalin) to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which statement by the parent indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. “I should consult a pharmacist when giving my child OTC medications.”
b. “I will only give my child diet soft drinks while administering this medication.”
c. “Medication therapy means that behavioral therapy will not be necessary.”
d. “Weight gain is a common side effect of this medication.”
AND MUCH MORE